11

Better known as the mermaid of the Mediterranean, Alexandria is the second largest city in Egypt and the chief port of Egypt located on the edge of the Nile delta on Mediterranean sea.

Alexandria characterized by its blue sky and wonderful beaches, it is also a perfect place to take your holiday as it has its special weather in summer and winter. Alexandria’s people are friendly and they are excellent in welcoming people.

Founded by Alexander the Great in 332 B.S, Alexandria became home to one of Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, the Lighthouse of Alexandria, as well as the legendary Library of Alexandria, characterized by blue skies and wonderful beaches. Alexandria has a great and interest history from ancient roman to these days, Alexandria is one of the most intriguing of history’s most notable cities, many old landmarks have become museums, historic sites and art galleries.

 

The King of Macedonia and conqueror of the Persian Empire is considered one of the greatest military geniuses of all times, He was inspiration for later conquerors such as Hannibal the Carthaginian, the Romans Pompey and Caesar, and Napoleon.

Alexander was born in 356 BC in Pella, the ancient capital of Macedonia; He was son of Philip II, King of Macedonia, and Olympia’s, the princess of neighboring Epirus.

He died in Babylon in 323 BC. Nobody knows the cause of Alexander’s death. Some people have said his death was caused by poison in wine, murder or a fever after a battle.

Alexandria, named after Alexander the Great, was founded in the year 332 BC.

MORSI ABU EL ABBAS

Only 5 mins from Cherry maryski Hotel, mosque of Abu al-Abbas al-Mursi is the most important historic mosque in Alexandria, Constructed in 1775, it was built over the tomb of saint Ahmed Abu al-Abbas al-Mursi. which remains today on its original site. The mosque became a place of pilgrimage for Muslims from Egypt and Morocco who passes through Alexandria during their Haj journey to and from Mecca.

A mulid or Islamic religious festival was established to celebrate the birth of Abu El Abbas

The mosque was rebuilt by the government in the Arabian architectural pattern that was popular during the Ayyubid Period, the time when Abu El Abbas El Mursi first came to Alexandria from Spain.

The walls of the mosque stand 23 meters high and dressed in artificial stone while the minaret, situated on the southern side, rises to 73 meters.

 

Pompey Pillar

Pompey is a column of the most famous monuments in Alexandria, built on a hill door sidra an a length of about 27 meters and made of red granite stone.

Held in honor of Emperor Diocletian in the third century AD.

Its body column is a one piece diameter at the base of 2.70 meters and when the crown 2.30 meters,the overall height of the column including the rule about 26.85 meters.

In the west side of the column bases can be reached peace underground.

Old Library

The royal library of Alexandria or ancient library of Alexandria was probably the largest and certainly the most famous of libraries of the ancient world.

It flourished under the patronage of the Ptolemaic and functioned as a major center of scholarship, at least until the time of Rome’s conquest of Egypt.

The Greek term bibliotheca, it’s terminology was collection of books, it’s called not any building nor the social networks which sustained and operated the collection, which complicates tracking the history of its destructions.

The bibliotheca Alexandria was inaugurated in 2002 near the site of the old library.

Roman Ampitheater

Every town in ancient Rome had an Amphitheatre, which means, “double theatre”.

They were grand and impressive, shaped in a half circle, open to the sky, and might have held 100.000 people.

Imagine yourself in ancient Alexandria; in the Roman theatre on a hot afternoon, all you can smell is the Mediterranean mist, all you can see are wild beasts, driven in through the tall doorway, and the fighters coming in from all around the floor. The Roman theater is located in the modern area of “Kom El-Dikaa”, which is almost in the center of the city of Alexandria.

Dating from the 2nd century A.D it has a large auditorium, about 42m in diameter. In later times the theater was rebuilt and its auditorium was diminished to 33.5 m in diameter, and then counted 16 rows of marble seats. Two marble pedestals and the bases of the columns are preserved.

KOM EL SHUQQAFA

The Arab name “The Kom Ash Shuqqafa catacombs” comes from the ancient Greek words “Lofus Kiramaikos”, which means the “pile of shards”.

In the medieval times, these catacombs were considered among the Seven Wonders of the World.

The Greek-Roman architecture of the catacombs is very complicated, so the structure of the main shaft is ingenious, as it allows the light to enter inside.

Throughout the years, the subterraneous waters entered inside, today being necessary for visitors to walk on wooden boards on certain areas so as not to step through water.

In these catacombs there are Roman details, blending with Egyptian and Greek ones, due to the period when they were built.

According to tradition, in catacombs there is a funerary room used to bury people and animals, killed at the order of the Emperor Caracalla, this room being called Caracalla’s Hall.

In this hall you can see a painting which represents the mummification of Osiris and Persephone’s kidnapping by Hades, a mixture of the Greek and Egyptian funerary myths.

Citadel of Qaitbay

The Qaitbay Citadel in Alexandria is considered one of the most important defensive strongholds, not only in Egypt, but also along the Mediterranean Sea coast. The Citadel is situated at the entrance of the eastern harbor on the eastern point of the Pharos Island in front of a special view of the blue sea.

It was built on the site of the famous Lighthouse of Alexandria, which was one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World.

Restoration began in the period of Ahmed Ibn Tulun (about 880 A.D).

About 1480 A.D, the Mameluke Sultan Al-Ashraf Qaitbay protected the place against the Turks, who were threatening Egypt at that time. The Citadel continued to function during most of the Mameluke period, the Ottoman period and the Modern period.

The founder of the Citadel of Qaitbay is Sultan Al-Ashraf Abou Anasr Saif El-Din Qaitbay El-Jerkasy Al-Zahiry (1468-1496 A.D) who was born about 1423 A.D (826 H). He was a Mamluke who had come to Egypt as a young man, less than 20 years old. He was one of the most important and prominent Mameluke Sultans, ruling for about 29 years.

Montaza

is a place with fantastic gardens and wonderful beaches to walk around. This area along the coast about 10 miles east of Alexandria’s old district along the Corniche is where many of the modern Alexandrian hotels are located, as well as one of the elegant heritage hotels.

Montaza Palace, which gives the park its name, was constructed during the reign of the KhediveAbbas II, the royal family’s habit of summering in the palace eventually drew wealthy Egyptians and foreigners to the same location.

ALEXANDRIAN UNDERWATER HERITAGE

What is really magically about the Alexandrian heritage is that it is not limited to what has existed, or what you can still see existing on land, but it extends beyond that to what you can’t see of valuable archeological remains, submerged under water at several sites along the coast.

These sites stretch from the Eastern Harbor “Portus Magnus” to Abu Qir Bay (Canopus).

At the site of the Eastern Harbor, submerged ruins of the ancient Lighthouse of Alexandria, together with thousands of other pieces of stonework of archeological interest were recently discovered (between 1961 and 1998)  (Empereur, 2000).

These pieces were found scattered over an area of 2.5 hectares of the Harbor’s bottom, including hundreds of columns of all sizes, column bases and capitals, sphinxes, statues, and some huge blocks of granite which, given where they lie, certainly came from the famous lighthouse.

Several sculptures belonging to the pharaonic era, including 28 sphinxes, bearing the insignia of the Pharaohs Sesostris III, Sethi I, Ramses II , and others, as  well as obelisks with hieroglyphic inscriptions, were also found at the underwater site of the Eastern Harbor.